Browsing All posts tagged under »International Trade«

Battle of Forms

December 15, 2015


‘Battle of forms’ is a very common problem in the modern commercial practice. So, what is ‘battle of forms’? A buyer offers to buy goods from another, on his own template of purchase order, which contains its standard conditions of trade. While the seller accepts the buyer’s purchase order, in its confirmation note or invoices, […]

CISG and Formation of Contract

December 14, 2015


One of the reasons that I prefer to adopt The Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1980 (CISG), as the choice of law, for the contract of international sale of goods – because it shares similar principles with English contract law. The following are some of the salient points of CISG, […]

CISG In Brief

December 11, 2015


When I draft a cross-borders contract on sale of good, I prefer to adopt Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1980 (CISG) as the preferred choice of law. CISG is the result of United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) in harmonizes the law relate to international trade. It becomes binding once the […]

Withholding Tax In Brief

April 20, 2015


When a corporate counsel negotiate for a cross border transaction with a customer from an uncharted territory, it is important to understand the withholding tax (WHT) requirements of the customer’s residence country. In short, WHT is imposed on non-residents (seller) who has business dealings within a tax jurisdiction. The law will require the customer to […]

Permanent Establishment Risk

April 17, 2015


When one draft, review or negotiate for an international trade contract, as or for seller (or exporter), it is essential to have fundamental knowledge on local taxation, to minimize the risk of ‘permanent establishment’ (PE). In brief, when the seller is carrying on the business at another country, the latter tax regime may view the […]

Adoption of CISG

January 20, 2015


‘Choice of laws’ in an international trade contract, i.e. which (domestic) law should apply in the event of disputes, could be contentious during a contract negotiation. The parties may bargain their own domestic law is the preferred choice. In a stalemate situation, the parties may have to adopt a third country domestic law as the […]